Ansons Consulting was commissioned to deliver this research by ClimateXChange, Scotland’s centre on climate research and policy, on behalf of the Scottish Government.
The Scottish Government’s route map to achieving a 20% reduction in car kilometres by 2030 forms part of national efforts towards achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2045. Car parking is one of a broad range of interventions that has potential to help meet the route map’s ambitious overarching objective. On this basis, we reviewed the most up-to-date evidence linking parking interventions to car use.
We began by conducting a systematic search of international literature, which resulted in thousands of initial results. Through a sifting process, we selected the most relevant sources, which were then subject to thorough review and rigorous analysis. This enabled us to identify evidence of whether and to what extent different types of parking intervention had been linked to changes in car use.
The research resulted in a list of prioritised parking interventions, which evidence linked to changes in car kilometres travelled, modal shift or car ownership. Our final report provided a series of recommendations to the Scottish Government related to the implementation of parking measures. It also identified gaps in the literature and opportunities for further research to inform ongoing efforts towards national climate change targets.